15.2.2016

Partisan attacks 1941 - 1944 Partisaanit iskevät

During the Finnish control of Eastern Karelia, many ethnic Russians and some Karelians supported the partisan attacks.

Approximately 5,000 partisans altogether fought in the region, although the typical strength of the force was 1,500–2,300. Peculiarities of this front were that partisan units were not created inside occupied territory, but their personnel came from all over the Soviet Union and that they mainly operated from the Soviet side of the front line.

The only major Soviet Partisan operation ended with failure when the 1st Partisan Brigade was destroyed at the beginning of August 1942 at Lake Seesjärvi. Most operations at the southern part of the front consisted only of a few individuals, but in the roadless northern part, units of 40–100 partisans were not uncommon. 


                                                          Partisan political officer Razumov

Partisans distributed propaganda newspapers, "Truth" in the Finnish language and "Lenin's Banner" in the Russian language. One of the more notable leaders of the partisan movement in Finland and Karelia was the future leader of the USSR, Yuri Andropov. 

In East Karelia, most partisans attacked Finnish military supply and communication targets, but inside Finland proper, almost two-thirds of the attacks targeted civilians,  killing 200 and injuring 50, mostly women, children and elderly.  On one occasion in the small village the partisans murdered all civilians, leaving no witnesses to the atrocities. One such incident was the attack of Lämsänkylä Kuusamo on July 18, 1943, in which the partisans attacked a lonely house and killed all of the seven civilians there, including a six-month-old baby and a three-year-old child, before fleeing. 

Partisan operations against Finns were estimated as being highly ineffectual. The partisans did not have sufficient strength to attack military targets, and would often falsely report their raids to higher command, claiming attacks on German or Finnish military targets even if the victims were civilians. Already in the autumn of 1941 the report of Komissariat of Interior Affairs was highly critical, and it became only worse, as stated in the counter-intelligence agency's report of April 1944. 
                                                  Russian partisan / patrol man
The main explanations given for the operations' failures were the isolated headquarters at Belomorsk, which did not know what operative units were doing, personnel who had no local knowledge and were partly made up of criminals (10-20% of all personnel were conscripted from prisons) without knowledge of how to operate in harsh terrain and climate, efficient Finnish counter-partisan patrolling (more than two-thirds of the infiltrating small partisan groups were completely destroyed) and Finnish internment of the ethnic Russian civilian population in concentration camps from those regions with active partisan operations. 


                                  Finnish prisoner, who are captured of russian patrol

Internees were released to secure areas, preventing partisans from receiving local supplies. In addition, many Soviet Karelians reported to the Finns the movements of the partisans and did not support the Soviet Partisans.


                             Partisan surrender and say goodbye binocular rifle

Partisans carried out several operations in Finland and Eastern Karelia, 1941, 1944. large one failed after the first Partisan Brigade was destroyed at the beginning of August 1942 the lake Seesjärvi. Partisans distributed propaganda newspaper Pravda in Finnish and Russian Lenin's Banner. One of the leaders of the partisan movement in Finland and Karelia was Yuri Andropov.

Finnish sources, partisan activity in eastern Karelia focused mainly on Finnish military supply and communication targets, but almost two thirds of the Finnish side of the border attacks targeted civilians, killing 200 and injuring 50, including children and the elderly

                                            After the battle. 

                Finnish soldier watch soviet partisan wounded and dead nurse
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Soviet Partisans make about 45 hit the country villace, time to Continuation War (1941-1944) as well as individual civilians against the road or hay meadows or field


In addition attacks were made against vehicles and truck escorts / transports and they destroy these, captures many finnish prisoners and kill some of theys put mostly taken and walking they over the border.


The attacks are mainly focused on small, separate villages, or groups of products. 
In the villages could be the beginning of the year 1942, the protection of civilians to be of a few men patrol group. Residents are typically killed in gunfire, some were taken prisoner and executed later (see. Seita Lake partisaanihyökkäys). All residents of villages in the fate of the missing is not known.

Captured soldiers partisans hit they hands the bayonet to tree stump, interrogation and execution by the shoting forehead, this was the most common method.


                                     11year girl raped and killed, many bayonet hits

                                         Ritva three month old girl, five hit of bayonet
Partisans toy: Captured five years Finnish little girl murdered in the wilderness,
the body of a full cut and puncture wounds, partisans nail and tooth marks.
We can imagine what kind sense and pleasure that his blood with terror crying, struggling helplessly little creature has attracted adults torturer.
And last, killed many bayonet blow
                                             Old housewife and a little girl of 5 year
                                  14 year old girl, rape and kill bayonet hit and shots

        12 years girl, hit the head rifle butt, raped and wrapped in a towel, and shots
                      Searching dead bodies of the ruins of the destroyed home house
                                                      They find a family
                                                  the escape of nearly succeed
                                                         I had time to two months old


                              The son of two year, the youngest victim of this village
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                                                      Trackers patrol chase 


                                    Chase (hunting and destroy) group / patrol

Partisan team is besieg and these partisan soldiers are surrendered, no food and a many their population are cutting they many small team, and these destroy one by one. Passionate and continuous hunting, and fear of of revenge make soon end to all persistent man, if the hunter can be able to follow their enemy.

                    Finnish soldiers and Soviet POWs with their wounded comrade.

Neuvostopartisaanit tekivät jatkosodan aikana vuosina 1941–1944 yhteensä 45 iskua kyliin sekä yksittäisiä siviilihenkilöitä vastaan maanteillä tai heinäniityillä Kuhmon, Kuusamon, Lieksan, Liperin, Sallan, Savukosken, Sodankylän ja Suomussalmen kuntien alueella. Lisäksi tehtiin hyökkäyksiä ajoneuvoja ja ajoneuvosaattueita vastaan sekä vietiin suomalaisia vankeina rajan taakse. Partisaani-iskuissa menehtyi 181 siviiliä. Suomen vastaista partisaanitoimintaa johti Juri Andropov

Hyökkäykset kohdistuivat pääasiassa pieniin, erillisiin kyliin tai taloryhmiin. Kylissä saattoi vuoden 1942 alusta lähtien siviilien suojana olla muutamasta miehestä koostuva vartioryhmä. Asukkaita kuoli tyypillisesti tulituksessa, osa saatettiin ottaa vangiksi ja teloittaa myöhemmin (ks. Seitajärven partisaanihyökkäys). Kaikkien kylistä kadonneiden asukkaiden kohtaloa ei tiedetä.

Tavallisia olivat myös hyökkäykset saattueita ja yksittäisiä ajoneuvoja vastaan. Tunnettu tällainen hyökkäys tehtiin Laanilassa, Inarissa 4. heinäkuuta 1943. Hyökkäyksessä sai surmansa muun muassa Oulun piispa Yrjö Wallinmaa. Toinen tunnettu hyökkäys tapahtui Kuusamon Murtovaarassa 5. heinäkuuta 1942 ja siinä saivat surmansa Suomen Sotilaskotiliiton puheenjohtaja Toini Jännes sekä sotilaskotisisaret Greta Palojärvi ja Fanni Aflecht. Heidän mukanaan kaatuivat myös molemmat armeijan autonkuljettajat, korpraalit Veikko Ilmari Moilanen ja Toimi Ilmari Rossinen

Partisaanihyökkäykset ovat olleet sodanjälkeisessä Suomessa virallisesti vaikeasti käsiteltävä aihe. Vastaavasti Neuvostoliitosta ja myöhemmin Venäjältä saatuja kuvauksia partisaanitoiminnasta eivät suomalaiset ole pitäneet uskottavina. Siviilikyliin kohdistuneista partisaanihyökkäyksistä on ilmestynyt kirjallisuutta. Helge Seppälän "Neuvostopartisaanit toisessa maailmansodassa" (1971) mainitsee mm. Kuoskuun 3. syyskuuta 1941 tapahtuneen tuhoiskun. Pentti Tikkasen "Partisaanit hyökkäävät" ilmestyi 1972, Eino Viheriävaaran "Partisaanien jäljet 1941–1944" julkaistiin 1982. 

Mutta vasta vuonna 1997 ilmestynyt Ville Tikkasen "Partisaanien uhrit" pääsi laajana artikkelina Helsingin Sanomien sivuille ja vuoden 1998 kesällä julkaistu Tyyne Martikaisen omakohtaisista kokemuksista virinnyt kirja "Neuvostoliiton partisaanien tuhoiskut siviilikyliin 1941–44" pääsi Huomenta Suomen aamulähetykseen ja avasi sotarikoskeskustelun. Saman vuoden syksyllä ilmestynyt Veikko Erkkilän kirja "Vaiettu sota" jatkoi keskustelua neuvostopartisaanien sodanaikaisesta toiminnasta Suomen rajojen sisäpuolella.


Voimakkaasti virinnyt julkinen keskustelu sai aikaan valtionsyyttäjän määräämään poliisikuulustelut tapahtuneista partisaanihyökkäyksistä.

3 kommenttia:

  1. Hello Roger.
    Partisans point we felt only wrath and anger
    We want destroy theys to the last man, and avenge all the acts.
    This not quite succeeded, put we destroyed their home base,
    name Sekee 1943.

    VastaaPoista
  2. In the Continuation War the ad hoc Sissi Battalions were discontinued, but Independent Battalions were raised, 4th Independent Battalion was directly under the command of Supreme Headquarters doing LRRP and raiding missions deep inside Soviet area.

    In the Battle of Ilomantsi, soldiers of the 4th disrupted the supply lines of the Soviet artillery, preventing effective fire support. In the Ladoga Karelia front the length of the front, absence roads and lack of troops prevented continuous front lines during the trench warfare period.

    Both armies used a chain of fortified field bases separated by the wilderness, monitoring and controlling the gaps with patrols. Both Finns and Soviets launched raids and recon patrols into enemy territory. Battles were short clashes of lightly armed infantry groups from squadron to battalion in size, with little chance of support or reinforcements

    VastaaPoista

Any explosive ammunition or empty cores, you can put in this.