Huolimatta Suomen valtion useista vetoomuksista Ruotsin hallitus kieltäytyi osallistumasta sotilaalliseen kanssakäymiseen puna-armeijan kanssa, koska se eteni talvisodan kuluessa. Ruotsi kuitenkin julisti itsensä "ei-sotaisa" eikä neutraali valtio. Konfliktin aikana peräti 8000 ruotsalaista vapaaehtoista tuli Suomen taistelemaan. Ruotsin hallitus ja julkinen taho lähetti myös ruokaa, vaatteita, lääkkeitä, aseita ja ammuksia tukeakseen suomalaisia tämän konfliktin aikana.
Tämä sotilaallinen tuki sisältää:
135.402 kivääriä, 347 konekivääriä, 450 kevyt konekivääriä tai konepistoolia
sekä näiden kanssa 50.013.300 käsiaseiden ammusta.
144 kenttätykkiä, 100 ilmatorjunta-asetta, 92 panssarin torjunta aseetta ja näihin
ammuksia 301.846. Lisäksi 300 merimiinaa ja 500 syvyyspommia. sekä 17 hävittäjää, 5 kevyttä pommikonetta +
1 DC-2 kuljetuskone joka muutettiin suomessa pommikoneeksi ja 3 tiedustelu lentokonetta.
Kaksitoista Ruotsin nykyaikaisinta hävittäjää, brittiläistä Gloster Gladiator konetta lensi vapaaehtoisten Ruotsalaisten lentäjien ohjaamina Suomen tunnuksien alla. Nämä lentokoneet muodostivat kolmasosan Ruotsin hävittäjä koneiden voimasta.
Lisäksi Ruotsi otti vastaan noin 70.000 Suomen sota-lasta, jotka lähetettiin Ruotsiin haluten löytää turvallinen paikka 1940-luvulla.
Ranskalaiset ja Brittiläiset tarjosivat tukea. Sitä tarjottiin ehdolla että saadaan täysin vapaa läpi-kulku Norjan ja Ruotsin kautta, tämä siksi koska Petsamon tie oli täysin Neuvostoliiton hallinnassa sen miehitettyä Petsamon.
Ranska lahjoitti talvisodan aikana Suomelle 50 Morane-Saulnier 406 -hävittäjää, joista kuitenkin vain 30 saatiin. Koneet kuljetettiin Malmö, jossa ne koottiin muutamassa viikossa ja lennettiin Suomeen helmikuun 1940 aikana.
Saksan teollisuus oli vahvasti riippuvainen Ruotsin rautamalmista. Liittoutuneiden oli tarkoitus käyttää Neuvostoliiton hyökkäystä Suomeen tekosyynä ja takavarikoida tärkeät Ruotsin rautamalmi kaivokset pohjoisessa Ruotsissa sekä lisäksi estää näiden kaivosten malmin kuljetus Norjan satamiin, joiden kautta tämä malmi kuljetettiin Saksaan.
Liittoutuneiden suunnitelmana oli saada Norjan sekä Ruotsin lupa lähettää retkikunta näennäisesti auttamaan suomalaisia.
Mutta kun liittoutuneiden joukot pääsisivät perille, niiden tarkoitus oli jatkaa ottamaan haltuunsa satamat sekä rautamalmikaivokset, miehittää Gävle ja Luulaja, sekä estää Saksan pääsy Ruotsin rautamalmiin.
Tämä suomen auttaminen oli yritys saada hyväuskoiset Norja ja Ruotsi suostumaan näiden jokkojen lähettämiseen. Tämän toteuttamisessa on kuitenkin mahdollisuus sekä liittoutuneiden tai saksalaisten miehitykseen, joka johtaa sotaan niiden omalla maaperällä ja tämän johdosta sekä Ruotsi että Norja hylkäsivät ehdotuksen.
Samaan aikaan myös saksalaiset pelkäsivät liittoutuneiden maihin nousun uhkaa, ja laativat omat suunnitelmansa hyökkäykseen Norjaan, suojelemaan omia strategisia huoltolinjojaan.
Altmark tapaus, 16 helmikuu 1940, vakuutti Hitlerin siitä ettei liittoutuneet kunnioita Norjan puolueettomuutta, jonka johdosta hän määräsi aloittaa suunnittelmat Norjan
valtaus hyökkäyksen toteuttamiseen.
Skandinavian maiden haluttomuus sallia liittoutuneiden joukkojen tulo alueelleen oli pysäyttäny liittoutuneiden alkuperäisen suunnitelman, jonka oli tarkoitus tukea suomalaisia, voidakseen siirtää joukkoja skandinaviaan. Kuitenkin 12 päivänä maaliskuuta liittoutuneet päättivät yrittää "puoli- rauhanomaista "hyökkäystä tästä Norjan ja Ruotsin vastalauseista huolimatta.
Joukot oli tarkoitus purkaa laivoista Norjassa Narvikin satamaan, siirtää nämä joukot juna kuljetuksella Pohjois-Ruotsiin ja siepata siellä Ruotsin rautamalmi kaivokset.
Mikäli toimenpide kuitenkin aiheuttaisi vakavia sotilaallisia vastuksia, tai kohdataan, sotilaallista vastarintaa, nämä seikat eivät vaikuttaisi liittoutuneiden asiassa.
Sen sijaan Suomi teki rauhan 12 päivänä maaliskuuta, ja tästä syystä liittoutuneiden oli luovuttava tästä suunnitelmasta.
Saksalaiset olivat tietenkin osittain tietoisia näistä liittoutuneiden aikeista heidän seurattua liittoutuneiden radioliikennettä osoitti että liittoutuneiden kuljetusyritykset Norjaan tehtävää maihin nousua varten oli laitettu valmiiksi.
Muutamia päiviä myöhemmin Saksalaiset lisäksi sieppasi viestit joilla vahvistetaan, että liittoutuneet olivat luopuneet suunnitelmasta ja joutuvat siirtämään hyökkäystä.
Sweden and Winter War
When the Soviet Union attacked Finland in November 1939, many Swedes favored some sort of involvement in the conflict, both on a humanitarian and on a military basis. Sweden's interest in Finland lay in the fact that Finland had been an integrated part of Sweden for more than six hundred years, with Sweden losing control of its eastern provinces in 1809.
Despite several pleas from the Finnish government, the Swedish government declined to engage militarily with the Red Army as it advanced during the Winter War. However, Sweden declared itself "non-belligerent" rather than neutral during the conflict and as many as 8,000 Swedes voluntarily went to Finland to fight.
The Swedish government and public also sent food, clothing, medicine, weapons and ammunition to aid the Finns during this conflict.
This military aid included: 135,402 rifles, 347 machine guns, 450 light machine guns with 50,013,300 rounds of small arms ammunition.
144 field guns, 100 anti-aircraft guns and 92 anti-armor guns with 301,846 shells.
300 sea mines and 500 depth charges.
1 DC-2 transport aircraft turned into bomber and 3 (Junkers) reconnaissance aircraft
Twelve of Sweden's most modern fighter aircraft, British Gloster Gladiators, were flown by volunteer Swedish pilots under Finnish insignias. These aircraft constituted one third of Sweden's fighter force at the time. In addition, Sweden received some 70,000 Finnish children who were sent to Sweden to find safety during the 1940s.
France donated during the Winter War of Finland 50 Morane-Saulnier 406 fighters, of which only 30 were obtained. Machines transported to Malmö, they assemble these planes few weeks. and was flown back to Finland in February 1940 period.
Bakery (europa-usa) komppanie volunteers---
Possible Allied invasion
Allied campaign in Norway and Franco-British plans for intervention in the Winter War
Franco-British support was offered on the condition it was given free passage through neutral Norway and Sweden instead of taking the road from the Soviet-occupied Petsamo.
German industry was heavily dependent on Swedish iron ore. The Allies had intended to use the Soviet attack on Finland in November 1939 as cover for seizing the important Swedish iron ore deposits in the north, in addition to the Norwegian harbours through which this ore was shipped to Germany. The plan was to get Norwegian and Swedish permission to send an expeditionary force to Finland across northern Norway and Sweden, ostensibly to help the Finns.
Swedish iron mining during WW II
But once in place, they were to proceed to take control of the harbours and the iron ore mines, occupying cities such as Gävle and Luleå and denying German access to the Swedish iron ore. In this way, an unsuspecting Norway and Sweden would be presented with a fait accompli. Realizing this danger, however, and the consequent possibility of Allied or German occupation and of the war being waged on their territory, both the Swedes and the Norwegians refused to allow this proposal.
Meanwhile, the Germans having suspected an Allied threat, were making their own plans for an invasion of Norway in order to protect their strategic supply lines. The Altmark Incident of February 16, 1940, convinced Hitler that the Allies would not respect Norwegian neutrality, so he ordered plans for an invasion.
Scandinavian reluctance to allow Allied troops onto their territory had halted the original Allied plan for using aid to Finland as a pretext for moving in troops, but on March 12, 1940, the Allies decided to try a "semi-peaceful" invasion nonetheless.
Kirknes iron / Bjørnevatn mining
German plans for an invasion of Norway continued, since Hitler feared that the Allies were nonetheless intent upon launching their own invasion. April 9 was set as the date of Operation Weserübung, the German attack on Norway.
Hitler was correct about Allied intentions. The Allied plan had two parts, Operation Wilfred and Plan R 4. Operation Wilfred was to take place on April 5 (it was in fact delayed until April 8) when Norwegian territorial waters were to be mined, violating Norwegian neutrality.
This would force the ships carrying ore to Germany to travel outside the protection of Norwegian territorial waters and thus become legitimate targets for the Royal Navy. It was hoped that this would provoke a German military reaction. As soon as the Germans reacted, under "Plan R 4", 18,000 Allied troops were to land in Narvik, closing the rail link to Sweden. Other cities that the Allies hoped to capture were Trondheim and Bergen.
Malmberget Gällivare, Swedish LKAB mining company
The first ship carrying Allied troops was to start its journey a few hours after the mine-laying. On April 8, a Royal Naval detachment led by HMS Renown mined Norwegian waters as a part of operation Wilfred, but German troops were already on their way and "Plan R 4" was quickly made obsolete.
On 9 April 1940, Germany launched Operation Weserübung, an operation with the ambitious objective of simultaneously occupying Denmark and Norway, and to stage a Coup d'état in Norway. This move had several far-reaching consequences for Sweden. Sweden was in effect cut off from trade with the western world and therefore more dependent on German goodwill, ultimately leading to permittenttrafik But it also lessened the immediate risk that Sweden would become a theater of war between the Axis and the Allies.
When Germany invaded both Denmark and Norway on April 9, 1940, the 100,000 Swedish soldiers who had been deployed along the Finnish border in northern Sweden were in the process of being demobilized, owing to the end of the Winter War there. Before the outbreak of hostilities, Sweden had had no plans for defending Norway or any defense strategy against a German invasion from the direction of Norway. Moreover, an agreement from the Dissolution of the union between Norway and Sweden in 1905 stated that no fortification was allowed along this border.
Swedish troops Pajala / Soviet bombing of Pajala, Sweden
Soviet bombing of Pajala, Sweden
One of Germany's demands on Sweden, as Germany's invasion progressed, was that Sweden was not to mobilize. However, Sweden re-organized its system of mobilization to allow for personal order by letter to be made possible as an alternative to official proclamation, so that 320,000 men were able to be raised in a few weeks. This was called "The Organization" and was barely different from a full mobilization when completed. Sweden also started to build fortifications at the Norwegian border and along the coast of Scania.
During its invasion of Norway, Germany demanded access to the Swedish telephone and telegraph lines between Germany and Norway. Sweden allowed this, but tapped the lines. In the early summer of that year (1940) the Swedish mathematician Arne Beurling succeeded in deciphering and discovering the source codes of the Geheimfernschreiber cypher machine that Germany used, which afforded the Swedes advance knowledge of Germany's military intentions.
Ski patrol 1940
Swedish iron ore to Hitler in exchange for Raubgold
With the decline of Swedish power in the eighteenth century, the Finns were called upon to defend the country's borders to the east against the traditional enemy, Russia. On three major occasions, Russian armies occupied parts of the country for a number of years before eventually being driven out by Finnish and Swedish forces. When Finland became the Grand Duchy of Finland in the Russian Empire in 1809 as a consequence of the Finnish War (1808-1809), the Finnish units of the Swedish army were disbanded.
Alexander II of Russia / Encouraging Finnish nationalism
Read more / Alexander I of Russia
The first indigenous Finnish military elements of three light infantry regiments were raised at the time of Napoleon's eastward drive in 1812, but during most of the nineteenth century, the only Finnish military force was a guards battalion paid for by the tsar. Finns were specifically exempted from Russian conscription, but more than 3,000 of them, mostly from the aristocracy, served in the tsarist armies between 1809 and 1917.
The Finnish Military Academy at Hamina continued to turn out officers who served with distinction in the Imperial Russian Army, a disproportionate number rising to the rank of general.
In 1878 the tsar permitted Finland to raise its own national militia through a conscription law providing for selection of recruits by lot to serve either as regulars or reservists. By the beginning of the twentieth century, the Finnish army consisted of eight provincial battalions of infantry and a regiment of dragoons, together with thirty-two reserve companies. In 1901, as part of the Russification movement, the Russian authorities introduced a military service law obligating Finns to serve in the tsarist army, for four years, anywhere within the Russian Empire.
Only one regiment of dragoons and one battalion of guards from the Finnish army were to be retained; the rest were to be incorporated in the imperial army. The new law was met by passive resistance in Finland, and it strengthened the Finnish nationalist movement. In a shift of policy in 1905, the conscription law was suspended, and Finns were never again called upon to serve in Russian uniform. Nevertheless, the Russians dissolved the militia, the military academy, and the guards battalion.
Soon after Finland gained independence in December 1917, a nationalistic, middle-class militia known as the White Guards, which had been secretly established in 1904 and 1905 and which had remained underground since then disguised as athletic clubs and other groups, was officially proclaimed the army of the Finnish government under General Mannerheim.
World War I and had formed the Twenty-seventh Royal Prussian Jaeger Battalion.
Returning to Finland, they brought back with them urgently needed small arms captured from the Russians. The White forces were swelled by new conscripts, officers of the former Finnish armed forces, Swedish volunteers, and Finnish officers who had served in the Swedish and in the Russian armies, in addition to the jaegers.
White Guards executed
After three months of bitter civil conflict, the White Army of about 70,000 troops defeated the Red Guards from the radical wing of the Finnish Social Democratic Party, in May 1918. Both sides suffered thousands of casualties. In four months, the White Guards had evolved from a strongly motivated, but ill-trained, militia into a battle-hardened, disciplined national armed force. Although numerically superior and reinforced by the Russian garrisons in Finland, the Red Guards were deficient in equipment, training, and leadership.
Vyborg city of Blood Fest 1918
During and after the Civil War, conflict emerged between the younger jaeger officers of the Finnish army and the former tsarist officers in its upper ranks. When most of the Finnish officer corps threatened to resign in 1924 over the dominance of the Russian-trained leadership, most of the Russian officers were moved aside and the jaeger officers began to occupy the higher echelons, bringing the influence of German military doctrine and training methods with them.
machine gun is hungry
The new government reinstituted conscription after the Civil War and established a small national army. It also introduced a mobilization system and compulsory refresher courses for reservists. The Finnish Military Academy was reactivated in 1919, and during the 1920s a reserve officers' school was formed, together with NCO schools for various branches and arms of the service.
Civil Guard men...
The Civil Guard, a voluntary rightist formation of 100,000 personnel derived from the White Guards, constituted a local auxiliary. Nevertheless, Finland did not succeed in building a strong national army. The requirement of one year of compulsory service was greater than that imposed by any other Scandinavian country in the 1920s and the 1930s, but political opposition to defense spending left the military badly equipped to resist attack by the Soviet Union, the only security threat in Finnish eyes.
When the Soviets invaded in November 1939, they were met by a force of 135,000 Finnish troops organized into 9 divisions. In what became known as the Winter War, the Finnish army defeated numerically superior invading Soviet formations within a relatively short period of time. The initial Red Army contingents were poorly trained, and they were ill prepared for combat under severe inclement winter conditions.
Two Swedish volunteers, they have own anti-tank rifles, and all the accessories
The Finnish army was able to inflict sharp reversals in battles on the Karelian Isthmus and in northeastern Finland, killing between 200,000 and 250,000 Soviet soldiers. Momentarily, it looked as if Finland would turn back the aggressor and would inflict an astonishing military defeat on its great and powerful neighbor. When the Soviet commanders reverted to a strategy of wearing down the greatly outnumbered Finns in Karelia by their overwhelming firepower, however, Finland's defeat seemed inevitable.
On March 12, 1940, an armistice yielded slightly more territory to the Soviets than they had initially demanded in 1939. This was in effect a deflection victory for the Finns, since the Soviet Union had attempted to conquer Finland entirely. The Soviets regarded this territory as being vital to their preparations for a future showdown with Nazi Germany.